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        初三上冊重點英語語法:語法時態

        來源:網絡     時間:2021-06-28     

        英語一直是非常重要的一門學科,所以說學好英語是特別的關鍵,但是學起英語來并不是一件非常容易的事,有些英語的語法知識是需要及時掌握的,今天給大家歸納總結了幾個英語語法知識來一起學習。

        語法時態

        語法:直接引語變間接引語。

        直接引用別人的話叫直接引語,用來轉述別人的話叫間接引語。例:

        He said, "He will go to Beijing tomorrow." (直接引語)

        He said that he would go to Beijing the next day.

        直接引語變間接引語時時態、人稱及一些時間或個別詞都要做相應的改變。

        ①時態:

        一般現在時→一般過去時 一般將來時→過去將來時

        現在進行時→過去進行時 一般過去時→過去完成時

        現在完成時→過去完成時

        * 但真理性的句子時態不變。例:

        He said: "The sun rises in the east."

        He said that the sun rises in the east.

        他說太陽從東方升起。

        ②時間:

        now→then, last month→the month before.

        today→ that day, three days ago→three days before.

        tonight→that night, tomorrow→the next day.

        yesterday→the day before, the day after tomorrow→in two days.

        ③其它變化:

        this→that these→those here→there

        come→go

        句式的改變:

        ①直接引語是陳述句加"that"可以省去。例:

        He said, "My sister was here three days ago."→

        He said that his sister had been there three days before.

        ②直接引語是一般疑問句,變成用if/whether引導的賓語從句,人稱時態等作相應改變。

        Mother asked me, "Did you buy any meat for lunch?"→

        Mother asked me if/whether I had bought some meat for lunch.

        ③直接引語是特殊問句,變成由原來疑問詞一樣的連接詞引導的賓語從句,時態人稱等作相應改變。例:

        "What do you do?" he asked me.

        He asked me what I did.

        ④直接引語是選擇問句變成由whether或if引導的賓語從句。

        "Do you like English or Chinese?" He asked me.

        He asked me whether I liked English or Chinese.

        語法:被動語態

        1.英語中動詞有兩種語態:主動語態和被動語態

        主動語態表示主語是謂語動詞動作的執行者,被動語態表示主語是謂語動詞動作的承受者。

        當我們強調誰是某個動作的執行者,即"誰做了某種事情"時,用主動語態。

        eg: Daniel bought a new computer 丹尼爾買了一臺新電腦。(不是別人)

        如果主語不是動作的執行者,而是動作的承受者時,就是被動語態。

        eg: A new computer was bought by Daniel 一臺新電腦被丹尼爾買了。

        被動語態的謂語由be + 動詞的過去分詞構成,其中be是助動詞,隨時態改變。

        一般現在時的被動語態由"am / is / are +動詞的過去分詞"構成。

        一般過去時的被動語態由"was / were +動詞的過去分詞"構成。

        2.被動語態的用法:

        當不知道或沒必要說明動作的執行者時,用被動語態。

        eg: Rice is grown in South China. 華南種植水稻。(沒必要說明是誰種)

        This bridge was built 100 years ago. 這座橋是100年前建的。(不知道誰建的)

        Passive voice with 'by'

        在被動語態中,如果我們也要把動作的執行者表達出來的話,我們就在被動句子的后面,用 "by+動作的執行者(賓格)"來表示。

        e.g. Jack broke the window. (主動語態)

        The window was broken by Jack. (被動語態) 窗戶是被杰克打碎的。

        Meals are cooked by her mother at home. 在家飯是她母親燒的。

        The book was written by him several years ago. 這本書是他幾年前寫的。

        3.難點:

        1). 當一個含有復合賓語(賓語+賓補)的句子變為被動語態時, 只能把賓語變為被動語態的主語,賓補還放在原來的位置。

        e.g. We call him Xiao Wang.--- He is called Xiao Wang.

        He cut his hair short.--- His hair was cut short.

        2). 帶雙賓語的動詞變為被動語態時, 常常把間接賓語變為被動語態的主語;如果直接賓語變為被動語態的主語時,間接賓語前要加介詞to或 for.

        e.g. Someone gave the boy an apple.-- The boy was given an apple.

        An apple was given to the boy.

        His mother bought a present for him.--- He was bought a present.

        A present was bought for him.

        3). 在let, hear, watch, see, help, have 等詞的句子中,主動語態不加to, 被動語態要加 to.

        e.g. The boss makes us work 12 hours a day.--- We are made to work 12 hours a day.

        They heard the children sing that morning.--- The children were heard to sing that morning.

        ⑤直接引語是祈使句,根據說話語氣變成ask/tell/order warn sb. to do sth.的結構。例:

        She said to me, "Stand up."→

        She asked me to stand up.

        Father said to his son, "Don't play football in the street."→

        Father told his son not to play football in the street.

        句式句型

        Unit 1

        1. They go as fast as they can.

        as…as sb. (one) can = as …as possible 盡可能地……

        as…as中間加原級的形容詞或副詞。例:

        I will work as hard as I can. 我將盡可能努力工作。

        He ran as fast as he could. 他拼命地跑。

        Please come here as soon as you can. 請盡快來這里。

        2. We call the first Olympic Games the "ancient" Olympics.

        我們把早期的運動會叫做"古代"奧運會。

        call sb. / sth. +n. 稱呼某人/某物……,后面的名詞作賓語補足語。

        例:We call the boy DaMao. 我們稱呼那個男孩大毛。

        類似于這種可以用名詞或名詞短語作賓語補足語的動詞有:

        name/call/make/choose/find/think等。例:

        We chose him our monitor at yesterday's class meeting.

        昨天班會我們選他當我們的班長。

        I find him a clever boy. 我覺得他是個聰明的孩子。

        3. It seemed that Zhuang Yong and Jenny Thompson, an American swimmer, had finished at the same time.

        看上去好像莊泳和美國游泳選手詹尼·湯姆森同時游完全程。

        以下幾種方式可以表示"看起來……,似乎……"

        It seems that +從句

        seem to be +adj.

        seem +adj.

        例:Danny seemed excited. (Danny seemed to be excited.)

        丹尼似乎很激動。

        seem to do sth.

        例:When his wife's pet cat died, Alan didn't seem to care at all.

        艾倫妻子的寵貓死了,他好象一點也不在乎。

        4. Diving is one of the most popular events at the Olympics.

        潛水是奧運會最受歡迎的項目之一。

        one of… ……其中之一,后常加最高級及名詞復數。例:

        Changjiang is one of the longest rivers in the world.

        長江是世界最長的河流之一。

        5. Make your country proud. 使你的國家因你而自豪。

        proud作賓語補足語,修飾賓語your country;

        make的用法:

        make the bed 鋪床 make tea 沏茶

        make dumplings 包餃子 make a car 制造汽車

        be made of 由……制成

        make sb. /sth. +n. 使某人/某物成為……

        made sb. /sth. +adj. 使某人/某物如何……

        make sb. /sth. do 使某人/某物做某事

        名詞/形容詞/do (不定式,省to),作賓語補足語。

        6. …his team came in twentieth. 他的隊第二十名。

        twentieth 第二十

        整十數的序數詞,變y為ie加th。例:

        ninety→ninetieth fifty→fiftieth

        7. We had such an interesting day at school today.

        我們今天在學校度過了這么有趣的一天。

        這句話也可以說成:We had so interesting a day at school today.

        such和so意思都是"如此……/這樣……",但用法不同。

        It is so interesting a film that we all want to see it once more.

        它是如此有趣的電影,我們都想再看一遍。

        Thanks a lot for sending me such beautiful pictures by e-mail!

        多謝你用e-mail給我發來這么漂亮的圖片。

        He is so weak that he can't work on.

        他如此虛弱以致不能再繼續工作。

        8. If I don't. I won't be able to sleep tonight.

        如果我不寫下來的話,我今晚睡不著覺。

        此句是if構成的條件狀語從句,要用一般現在時代替將來時。

        I'll go to the park with my friends if it doesn't rain tomorrow.

        如果明天不下雨,我要和朋友去公園。

        9. If he practises walking on pizzas, he'll do better next time.

        如果他保持練習在比薩餅上走的話,下次他會表現好一些。

        finish, enjoy, practise, keep, mind后常加動名詞作賓語。例:

        You'd better practise speaking English both in and after class.

        你最好在課上課下練習說英語。

        Unit 2

        1. Our class could play soccer for a week without stopping.

        我們班同學可以踢一周足球不休息。

        without 介詞,with的反義詞,后加名詞、代詞或doing形式的動詞,有時可以用if從句改寫。例:

        Without having breakfast, he hurried to school.

        他沒有吃早飯,匆忙上學去了。

        Fish can't live without water. 沒有水魚不能活。

        If there is no water, fish can't live.

        2. That's very kind of you. 你真是太好了。

        還可以說:That's very nice of you.

        3. Wouldn't we get tired? 我們不會累嗎?

        此句是否定形式的一般疑問句,常用來表驚訝、責備、贊嘆等語氣。例:

        Isn't it beautiful? 它不漂亮嗎? (It is beautiful!)

        注意答語:Yes, it is. 不,漂亮

        No, it isn't. 是的,不漂亮。

        Can't you come earlier? 你不能早來嗎?(責備)

        4. The Great Wall of China is more than 7,240 kilometres long.

        中國的長城長7,240多公里。

        It is +數字+單+形容詞是一個固定句式,用來表達某物(人)多高/長/寬/深等。例:

        The river is 10 metres deep.

        這條河深10米。

        The old man is seventy years old. 這個老人70歲。

        Our room is 5 metres wide. 我們教室寬5米。

        通常這樣的句子可以用how+形容詞+一般問句構成特殊疑問句。例:

        How wide is your room?

        How deep is the river?

        5. On average, it weighs more than 26 tons.

        平均,它(鯨)重26噸多。

        weigh 動詞,重……多少。

        weight n. 重量。例:

        The desk weighs 10 kilos. 這書桌重10公斤。

        The weight of the desk is 10 kilos.

        The desk is 10 kilos heavy.

        6. The average blue whale is about four times as big as the biggest elephant.

        平均藍鯨是最大的大象的四倍。

        four times as+原級+as 是……的幾倍 例:

        This room is three times as big as that one.

        This is twice bigger than that one.

        times是倍數,有時也可以當"次數"講。例:

        I have been to the Great Wall twice.

        7. Does anyone have any other ideas?

        有人有別的主意嗎?

        any other 用在肯定句中后常加單數名詞。

        any other 在疑問句和否定句中加復數名詞。例:

        The boy is taller than any other boy in his class.

        這個男孩比他班里任何別的男孩都高。

        I don't want any other oranges. 我不要任何別的桔子。

        8. I have some more. 我有更多一些。

        some more 更多一些,后加可數或不可數名詞。

        much more 后加不可數名詞

        進行英語語法的學習過程中,一定要做好英語的筆記,畢竟后期復習上英語筆記是非常重要的,而且也能夠讓復習變得更輕松。

        many more 后加可數名詞復數

        I want many more books. 我想要更多的書。

        9. It's a man who can ride his bicycle backwards while playing the violin.

        那是一個能邊拉小提琴邊倒騎車的人。

        while (when) 當……時,時間狀語從句。

        當從句的主語和主句的主語一致或是it時,在時間、條件、讓步從句中且從句中的謂語動詞含有be時,則可以省略從句的主語和be。例:

        I will go to visit Beijing if (it is) possible.

        Although (I am) ugly, I am gentle.

        盡管我丑,我很溫柔。

        通過以上知識點的學習,大家要做好相關的筆記,這樣在復習學習的時候才會更有效果,而且也要養成記筆記的好習慣,這樣學習起來也會更加的輕松。

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